Shiki and Kyaku
Shiki and Kyaku
Shiki and Kyaku (Admnistrative/Ceremonial Procedures and Penal Codes) are two different types of legal documents made to implement the laws of the late 7th and early 8th centuries. The first Shiki and Kyaku were completed in the Kōnin Era, the second in the Jōgan Era.
The Engi Shiki (Engi Rites – 延喜式) is a collection of 50 legal texts compiled by Fujiwara no Tokihira until 909 and then Fujiwara no Tadahira until 927. They cover Shinto ceremonies and customs, as well as containing Norito. It is considered one of Shinto’s sacred texts.2
Its creation was ordered by Emperor Daigo. The first 10 books, cover festivals and ceremonies under the Jingikan. The 11th book covers proecdures for the Dajōkan with the other 39 on the eight mnisteries and other bureaus of government.1
Specific information from this text includes:
- Ameno Futodama is stated to have several shrines in Izumi Province.
- Amenomikumari is said to have many shrines and the text associates them with the water required for rice paddies.
- Amenotajikarao is stated to have shrines in Kii.
- The Ifuya Pass, the apparent location to the entrance of Yomi.
- Honoikazuchi is stated to have shrines in Yamato, Izumi and Yamashiro.
- Ishikoridome is stated to have three shrines in Yamato.
- Mizuhanome is stated to have shrines in Awa and Yoshino.
- Kamu Ōichihime is stated to have shrines in Ise.
- Kanayamahime is stated to have shrines in Kochi.
- Kanayamabiko is stated ot have shrines in Kochi and Mino Province.
- Kuraokami is stated to have shrines throughout Japan.
- Ōkuninushi is stated to have shrines across Honshu.
- Ōwatatsumi is stated to have shrines in Suminoe.
- Ōyamatsumi is stated to have a shrine in Shikoku.
- Takehiratori is stated to have a shrine in Izumo.
- Takamimusuhi is included as one of the 8 tutelary deities of the Royal Clan invoked in winter solstice rites and harvest festivals.
- Tamanooya is attributed with several shrines.3
The Engi Kyaku was compiled between 905 and 907.1
The Kōnin Shiki (Commentaries on the Nihongi) is a commentary, compiled between AD810-824. It describes the Nihongi as “selected afresh” meaning the work was not a new composition but a compilation of old texts and stories.
- You can find scanned copies of Volumes 1-50 on the Waseda University: HERE.
1. Kodansha. (1993) ”Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia”. Tokyo: Kodansha Ltd.
2. Louis Frederic, translated by Kathe Roth (2002) “Japan Encyclopedia”. London: Harvard University Press.
3. Yasumaro. O, translated by Gustav Heldt. (2014) “Kojiki. An Account of Ancient Matters”. New York: Columbia University Press.
4. Aston. W.G. (1896) “Nihongi Volume 1: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to AD697”. Tuttle Publishing.
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